Considers what is known about work done by children and adolescents and the effects of that work on their physical and emotional health and social functioning. Recommends specific initiatives for legislators, regulators, researchers, and employers. Also provides historical perspective on working children and adolescents in the United States and explores the framework of child labor laws that govern that work. It presents a wide range of data and analysis on the scope of youth employment, factors that put children and adolescents at risk in the workplace, and the positive and negative effects of employment, including data on educational attainment and life-style choices. Also includes discussions of special issues for minority and disadvantaged youth, young workers in agriculture, and children who work in family-owned businesses.