Provides practical guidance on biosafety techniques for use in laboratories at all levels. The manual covers risk assessment and safe use of recombinant DNA technology, and provides guidelines for the comissioning and certification of laboratories. Laboratory biosecurity concepts are introduced, and the latest regulations for the transport of infectious substances are reflected. Material on safety in health-care laboratories has also been incorporated. This fourth edition of the manual builds on the risk assessment framework introduced in the third edition. Examines how a thorough, evidence-based and transparent assessment of the risks allows safety measures to be balanced with the actual risk of working with biological agents on a case-by-case basis.