Presented at a Seminar on Ethics, Professional Standards and Drug Addiction, Strasbourg, 6 - 7 February 2003. Workplace drug testing remains a sensitive issue because of the difficulty of balancing safety and productivity requirements against the essential need to prevent the invasion of privacy and discrimination. The contentiousness of workplace drug testing arises out of the collision between workers’ and employers’ interests. While all these forms of drug testing raise issues of concern, it is random testing that is the most controversial and is accompanied by vehement arguments for and against. For this reason, this paper focuses mainly on random testing in the workplace.