This review considers the scientific evidence on the health effects of work and worklessness. It seeks the balance of the health benefits of work vs. the harmful effects of work, and of work vs. worklessness. It addresses the following questions:
1. Does the current evidence suggest that work is beneficial for physical and mental health and well being, in general and for common health problems?
2. What is the balance of benefits and risks to health from work and from worklessness?
3. Are there any circumstances (specific people, health conditions, or types of work) where work is likely to be detrimental to health and well-being?
4. Are there specific areas where there is a lack of evidence and need for further research?