After a traumatic experience, survivors often experience a cascade of physical, emotional, cognitive, behavioural, and spiritual responses that leave them feeling unbalanced and threatened. This book explains these common responses from a biological perspective, reframing the human experience from one of shame and pathology to one of hope and biology. It also presents alternative approaches, the Trauma Resiliency Model (TRM) and the Community Resiliency Model (CRM), which offer concrete and practical skills that resonate with what we know about the biology of trauma. Clinicians will find that they can use the models with almost anyone who has experienced or witnessed any event that was perceived as life threatening or posed a serious injury to themselves or to others. The models can also be used to treat symptoms of vicarious traumatization and compassion fatigue.