Psychosocial factors have emerged as an occupational health issue. Occupational stress is one of the highest in the health care sector compared to other sectors. Among health care staff irregular working hours and stressful work may challenge employees’ possibilities to sleep and recover sufficiently. Sleep is essential for the recovery from job strain, but job strain may impair sleep more among shift workers than day workers, because shift workers are also exposed to circadian misalignment. The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on job strain and shift work by examining the association of job strain with sleep and psychophysiological functioning and recovery among shift working health care professionals in laboratory and field.